Unreal C++ Array Of Structs

In order to create a dynamic array, you define a pointer to the array variable. Trie (nsert and Search operations) data structure implementation in c language. Jiro's pick this week is Nested Struct Sort by Jake Hughey. The effects of aggregate initialization are: Each direct public base, (since C++17) array element, or non-static class member, in order of array subscript/appearance in the class definition, is copy-initialized from the corresponding clause of the initializer list. An array of pointers would be an array that holds memory locations. For any larger type, alignment (see questions 2. I am facing some problem related to my assignment. C/C++ provides the sizeof operator that can be used to get the dimension of an array. Sort an Array Elements in Ascending Order in C++. Arrays of struct elements. Memory and C++ Memory and C++ Eric Roberts CS 106B January 30, 2015 Data Types in C++ The data types that C++ inherits from C: • Enumerated types defined using the enum keyword • Structure types defined using the struct keyword • Arrays of some base type • Pointers to a target type • Atomic types:. A stack is a linear data structure that serves as a collection of elements with push, pop and pop. To sort array of Structure; Find the sum of two one-dimensional arrays using Dynamic Memory Allocation; Stack PUSH & POP Implementation using Arrays; Program to remove duplicate element in an array; c program to merge two files; C Program to sort the matrix rows and columns; Write a c program for swapping of two arrays; C Program to read name. Features about structs Structs can be assigned as as aggregate. First we define the required functions and operations:. Vapor-phase hydrothermal transformation of a nanosheet array structure Ni(OH) 2 into ultrathin Ni 3 S 2 nanosheets on nickel foam for high-efficiency overall water splitting† Guoqiang Liu , ‡ ab Zhongti Sun , ‡ c Xian Zhang , ab Haojie Wang , ab Guozhong Wang , a Xiaojun Wu , c Haimin Zhang * a and Huijun Zhao ad. In C, single variables or array elements are lvalues. Reflection is the ability of a program to examine itself at runtime. Flexible Array Members in a structure in C Flexible Array Member(FAM) is a feature introduced in the C99 standard of the C programming language. And to use the array of structure variables efficiently, we use pointers of structure type. 2 This may be a breeze for C++ developers but for C# programmers, careful attention must be paid to the contents of the structures. Today we are going to take a little break from our player character series and go over a few Unreal Engine C++ Fundamentals. A struct in C++ is like a class. What new can be said about multi-dimensional arrays in C++? As it turns out, quite a bit! With the advent of C++11, we get new standard library class std::array. Deleting an array through a pointer to the incorrect type results in undefined behavior. This module performs conversions between Python values and C structs represented as Python strings. You have a Struct, which is the name of a Java™ class. Remember that C language does not support strings as a data type. However, piggybacking a second region onto a single malloc call like this is only portable if the second region is to be treated as an array of char. Data structure means organizing the data by using models in the computer memory. Or you can put them all into a cell array (rather than concatenating them) like this: >> {a. When declaring structs, specifiers can be added to the declaration to control how the struct behaves with various aspects of the engine and editor. The identifier array "decays" to a pointer pointing at its first element. }; Example: struct StudentRec {string name. cpp A 2D array is basically a 1D array of pointers, where every pointer is pointing to a 1D array, which will hold the actual data. Array indexes always begin with 0. C Structures. Introduction. In order to implement this, we need to wrap array within UStruct. Printing an array of structs? - posted in C and C++: Hey guys, so what Im trying to do is print each member of a struct from every struct in an array. A struct declaration requires the keyword struct, optionally the name of the struct (see below), and a body consisting of one or more attributes. In an array, , of size , each memory location has some unique index, (where ), that can be referenced as (you may also see it written as ). I've found a workaround for this. Suppose you want to keep track of your. The C structure does not allow the struct data type to be treated like built-in data types:. Reflection is the ability of a program to examine itself at runtime. A C program may contain one or more sections which are figured above. Fish states are stored in an array of size N x 2, where N is the number of fish, and 2 is the number of copies. Books covering C and C++ are listed here and when you've selected a relevant book we'll link you on to Amazon to order. When the default values of a struct are set in code and an array of the struct type are added as a class variable, creating a blueprint of the class with show array elements with the "reset defaults" arrow regardless of the current/default value. Programming C // enumeration, struct, array of structs // Need this ASAP please. The length of an array or the number of structures, for example, may be unknown until your executing program determines what these values should be. Arrays can hold primitives as well as references. Using a Structure. Ragged arrays. Arrays of struct elements. This book starts by installing a code editor so you can begin to write C++17 code. Saving and loading actor data in Unreal Engine 4. because you will have to allocate an unmanaged memory block in your managed context, which you will pass to your setinitdata function, you need a function which will only return the count of the elements, which will be stored in the array. They are being used to save matrix result generated my program code in the main function. CRAZY POINTER ARRAYS #include int main() { char *fruit[] […]. Fish states are stored in an array of size N x 2, where N is the number of fish, and 2 is the number of copies. void f( int a, int &b, const int &c ); Parameter a is a value parameter, b is a reference parameter, and c is a const-reference parameter. Array definition, to place in proper or desired order; marshal: Napoleon arrayed his troops for battle. This document is intended to introduce pointers to beginning programmers in the C programming language. A linear data structure that represents a relationship between elements by successive memory location is known as the array, where as a linear data structure that represents a relationship between elements by pointer and link is known as linked list. This is hugely useful and is a foundational technology of the Unreal engine, powering many systems such as detail panels in the editor, serialization, garbage collection, network replication, and Blueprint/C++ communication. There can be two possible outcomes if we are assuming that data structure like array contains unique values. #include int int_array [5];. It is used to represent blank-padded, variable-length strings. But every array in C++ is a pointer. Declaring a Struct. Introduction to C Programming Arrays Overview. Quick Reference. String is a sequence of characters that is treated as a single data item and terminated by null character '\0'. Passing arrays of structs from C# web service to raw C++? - ASP. This is an important feature. BlueprintType. Legal Statement Embedded Software in C for an ARM Cortex M by Jonathan Valvano and Ramesh Yerraballi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. Unless the appropriate size of the flexible array member has been explicitly added when allocating storage for an object of the struct, the result of accessing the member data of a variable of nonpointer type struct flex_array_struct is undefined. nAccessing the array of structs is fairly easy, once you get used to it. Votes: 0 Views: 454. Why Use Structure in C++. h I Would Make It The Last Declaration In The File. Flexible array members were introduced in the C99 standard of the C programming language (in particular, in section §6. Array of structs instead of an array with pointers to structs?. This is hugely useful and is a foundational technology of the Unreal engine, powering many systems such as detail panels in the editor, serialization, garbage collection, network replication, and Blueprint/C++ communication. Fortunately, structs are not the only aggregate data type in C++. You may have studied arrays which is a data structure and has advantage of accessing any element in constant time but adding an element at the beginning or somewhere in an array is a costly operation as we have to shift other elements. #include #. This example program demonstrates how to get the length of a C array using the sizeof operator. We can use structure and array as:Array of Structure,Array within Structure. Syntax for declaring structure array. In the preceding code, myPointer holds the value of the first element of our array. I'm pretty sure C# does not allow parameterless struct constructors, so alternatively you could perhaps add a constructor with a parameter specifying the length of the array(s), or add an Initialize() function to the struct that does all the array initializing. One wonderful side effect of this definition is that the expression 42[some_array] is perfectly valid and means exactly the same thing as some_array[42]. The OS sees. Structures are used to represent a record, suppose you want to keep track of your books in a library. The real difference between struct and class: what you express by using them The difference that really matters between struct and class boils down to one thing: convention. 01 - Classes intro. On 32-bit architectures the vptr takes 4 bytes of the struct instance and the rest is the data array, so arr[2] represents access to second element of the data array, which holds value 33. They are being used to save matrix result generated my program code in the main function. The OS sees. Turn in the Answer Sheet and the printouts required by the exercises. How to Program in C++. This is the same which we do while defining a pointer to any other variable. To my surprise, I found that a struct array which contains only integers is very easy to get, but if you have a string in the array, you need to do some more things. However, C structures have some limitations. However, copying arrays of integers (e. I will share my knowledge to the rest of the world!. You need to fully initialize new structs just like you would any C++ program. In C#, classes and structs are semantically different. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. Syntax for declaring structure array. Unreal Engine 4 (UE4) is a powerful C++ engine with a full range of features used to create top-notch, exciting games by AAA studios, making it the fun way to dive into learning C++17. Structures are used to represent a record. An emblem of Nanjing University (left) and an array of hemispheres can be printed on wooden surfaces. The problem is the goofy way operator[] is defined in C and for primitive arrays in C++. Basically, you are finding all permutations of the array using a recursive permutation algorithm. # re: Mapping a byte array to a structure in C# This causes for unmanaged memory to be allocated (GCHandle. Using 2D array (Both C and C++): This method is useful for shuffling, comparing and accessing characters randomly. The associated C-structure, PyArrayMapIterObject, is useful if you are trying to understand the advanced-index. On 64-bit architectures the vptr takes 8 bytes so arr[2] represents access to the first element of the data array, which holds 22. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Such a construction is often necessary in the C programming language. Array of Structures in C An array of structres in C can be defined as the collection of multiple structures variables where each variable contains information about different entities. How do you return an array of structs? (After trying it and googling I am not sure if it is possible, strangely). An array of structres in C can be defined as the collection of multiple structures variables where each variable contains information about different entities. In such cases, the sizeof operator is evaluated in part at runtime to determine the storage occupied by the array. Exercise: implement and test two functions in this file: printStudent and initStudent. Length of array in C. Although I appreciate your assistance, as far as I can tell none of the examples given here will actually create a global array of structs that is accessible from any. [code]#include typedef struct p { char c; float x,y; }point; point P[2]={{'a',1. Here is what happens: in C (and C++) you cannot return an array. Struct of array merupakan pembuatan array pada struct, terkadang kita membutuhkan array pada objek yang dibuat oleh struct. Warning: it's compiler- and hardware-dependent: you'll need to make sure the storage is aligned with an alignment that is at least as strict as is required for objects of class Fred. This program will read total number of elements (N) and check value of N must be valid between 1-N, program will read N integer values (as array elements), print input elements with sorted array element (After sorting elements in Ascending Order). This exposes all of the variables contained within the struct as individual pins on the node, allowing you to enter values or manipulate them independently. Suppose you want to keep track of your. You don't have a struct which is a C/C++ keyword. c file in the program. 0},{'b',3. Example C++ Code: Stacks Using Arrays #include iostream. I am facing some problem related to my assignment. nA common way to represent data is with a struct. A C program may contain one or more sections which are figured above. The server side will need to adapt what it sends or you can decode using json fields. Similarly structure is another user defined data type available in C that allows to combine data items of different kinds. Single-Dimensional Arrays in c++. I'm pretty sure C# does not allow parameterless struct constructors, so alternatively you could perhaps add a constructor with a parameter specifying the length of the array(s), or add an Initialize() function to the struct that does all the array initializing. In an array, , of size , each memory location has some unique index, (where ), that can be referenced as (you may also see it written as ). Marshaling Different Types of Arrays. If however a struct contains a zero-sized array, the size of the struct will also be zero. 20 Arrays of Variable Length. Start studying C++ Programming, Malik 5th ed. Start studying C++ Programming, Malik 5th ed. When a parameter is passed by value, a copy of the parameter is made. Also note that this pointer will reflect the word size of the hardware. It is used to represent blank-padded, variable-length strings. Vectors are a powerful yet simple data structure. So far I can do this ; if my array dimension is lower for example- if I have initialized 8 2D arrays with dimensions as [10][10] of type double. It combines static and dynamic structure. There is no requirement that all rows in a two-dimensional array have the same length—an array with rows of nonuniform length is known as a ragged array. These temperatures can affect the crystallinity of the stack and cause boron migration out of the CoFeB layer into the MgO barrier. Here, an object (realization of the structure) represents one particle and a set of many particles is stored in an array. Source Code for Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C (Second Edition) Here is the source code for Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C (Second Edition), by Mark Allen Weiss. If you want to convert that JSON array into a slice of structs with the items of the array, heres how you can do it:. I have noticed that when I create a type which is an array of containers (size=1), allow passing as a C struct, but exclude the container from passing as C struct, then the type shows up as a struct ref rather than an array in the C++ dll parameter. Start studying CSC102 Ch 9 Quiz. The solution is a bit awkward, but it should do the trick for people like me who have desperate need of nested arrays. You Will Then Make A Function With The Following Signature: You Are Going To Write One Function Called: Void ReadData( String Input, String Output ); Declare It In: Lab9. String is a sequence of characters that is treated as a single data item and terminated by null character '\0'. Length of array in C. An array of structures is declared in the usual way: 1 struct personal_data my_struct_array[100];. If dont understand pointers, please read this tutorial before you go on. C array of pointers. This is hugely useful and is a foundational technology of the Unreal engine, powering many systems such as detail panels in the editor, serialization, garbage collection, network replication, and Blueprint/C++ communication. I will share my knowledge to the rest of the world!. By Chaitanya Singh | Filed Under: Learn C++ Structure is a compound data type that contains different variables of different types. Simple solution would be to iterate over the elements of an array and print each element. Return to the top of this lab Return to the link page for all 2170 labs. ptr = &stud; - We made our pointer ptr to point to the structure variable stud. BlueprintType. For more information, see Value Types. Start studying C++ Programming, Malik 5th ed. Here, an object (realization of the structure) represents one particle and a set of many particles is stored in an array. What I do is to. Sort an array elements means arrange elements of array in Ascending Order and Descending Order. The original basic code is below to show what I am trying to convert. In C, single variables or array elements are lvalues. A vector is a type of array you find in object oriented languages like C++. If you don't have much c++ experience I can give an example later. Votes: 0 Views: 454. An array is a reference type in managed code that contains one or more elements of the same type. You have declared an array named employees with 50 elements of type employeeType. Here is the question The management wants to automate the billing system for breakfast items. Seperti halnya Array, Record/Struct mempunyai sejumlah elemen yang disebut field. Length of array in C. These temperatures can affect the crystallinity of the stack and cause boron migration out of the CoFeB layer into the MgO barrier. If we specify or use array as intArr[10], intArr[11], intArr[200], the C compiler will not show any error, but we will get run time errors while executing the program. C++ Data Structure and Union Tutorial. What is the advantage of using zero-length arrays in C? This question was originally answered on Quora by Robert Love. Arrays allow to define type of variables that can hold several data items of the same kind. The reason his initialization-list syntax works is because you're actually initializing the Customer structs at the time of the declaration of the array, rather than allowing the structs to be default-initialized which takes place whenever you declare an aggregate data-structure like an array. This is going to be a new side series of videos / helpful material that should give you insight into various common Unreal data types, functions, macros, etc etc. In nested structs, the nested levels might not all be the same, and they themselves are also arrays of pointers (all under the hood of course) to other MATLAB arrays. You can store "n" number of students record by declaring structure variable as 'struct student record[n]", where n can be 1000 or 5000 etc. Unreal Engine 4 is used to create top notch, exciting games by AAA studios, and learning to program in C++ needs some serious motivation. Deleting an array through a pointer to the incorrect type results in undefined behavior. Structures are used to represent a record. So I'll talk about interesting ways in which they come together. On 20-01-17 · By Rune de Groot · With 8 Comments; For a game idea that I was thinking of I needed a saving/loading system that would store all actors that are in a world. Code with C | Programming: Projects & Source Codes › Forums › C# Programming › C# program using an Array of Structs This topic contains 4 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by SapnaVishwas 3 years ago. C++ Data Structure and Union Tutorial. All rights reserved. It is an interesting structure to form a useful data structure. I am using struct operation in my code to save output of my program which is a 2D array. 02 - Example: Account class. Like an entry in the phone book of a cellphone, each instance of the struct contains the same pieces of information (such as the person’s name, telephone number, and email address). For instance, to allocate memory dynamically for Employee structure defined above, we may give. 諸事情により ue4 でゲームではない何かを開発したりユカイなマルチプロセスのゲームを作ったりすると プロセスid を取得したくなるかもしれない。. A tutorial site dedicated to using C++ in Unreal Engine 4. 6 (1,061 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students' ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. It's a container for a group of data elements. This has been bugging me for a little while, but I figured it out. When a parameter is passed by value, a copy of the parameter is made. odeclare and initialize C++ record (struct) as an array. Turns out both sides are right. Like an entry in the phone book of a cellphone, each instance of the struct contains the same pieces of information (such as the person’s name, telephone number, and email address). Internally, an array does not keep any data other than the elements it contains (not even its size, which is a template parameter, fixed on compile time). A link to the wiki for further notes is available here - https://wiki. With this enhancement, Pro*C/C++ can handle simple arrays of structs of scalars as bind variables in embedded SQL statements for easier processing of user data. Start studying C++ Programming, Malik 5th ed. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Here is a sample program to initialize an array of structures (globally) of the expected format and try to print them in the main. You missed my favorite use for the empty struct: singletons! Where an OOP programmer would use some variant of the Singleton design pattern, to ensure that only one instance of his class is created, in Go you can use an empty struct, and store all your data in global variables. Sum of Values in an Array /* Program ARRAYSUM. An array of structres in C can be defined as the collection of multiple structures variables where each variable contains information about different entities. When the default values of a struct are set in code and an array of the struct type are added as a class variable, creating a blueprint of the class with show array elements with the "reset defaults" arrow regardless of the current/default value. We also get new language features, such as template aliases and variadic templates. Although it has lost little of its didactic value, it describes a language that C compilers today do no longer understand: the C of 1974, four years before Kernighan and Ritchie published the first edition of "The C Programming Language". However, each lamda is a different object, even if it has the same signature, so we can’t have an array of pure lambdas. One of the distinguishing characteristics of a stack, and the thing that makes it useful, is the order in which elements come out of a stack. 0xCCCCCCE0 C++ struct template not found for. Structure array is used in this program to store and display records for many students. Dynamic arrays enable you to track dynamically changing game conditions from the UE4 C++ Example 2 You could make a dynamic array that is accessible to blueprints so your team members working in blueprints can add information to the dynamic array, which you as the programmer will then use in c++ during runtime. The Basics of C Programming. I use it often when I am doing some data management. A vector is a type of array you find in object oriented languages like C++. Deleting an array through a pointer to the incorrect type results in undefined behavior. C Reference Card (ANSI) Program Structure/Functions multi-dim array name[ dim1][2] : Structures struct tag { structure template declarations declaration of members};. Here is a sample program to initialize an array of structures (globally) of the expected format and try to print them in the main. Arrays may be useful when size of data is fixed. Array of structs vs struct of arrays, and cache friendliness By wcassella , March 13, 2015 in General and Gameplay Programming This topic is 1668 days old which is more than the 365 day threshold we allow for new replies. UE4 does not support an array of arrays. The above two structs each have three data fields: an array of char, an int, and a float. C99 also allows variable length arrays that have the length specified at runtime, although the feature is considered an optional implementation in later versions of the C standard. my mean was to save several various classes with different tasks as a array and then using "foreach" to recall them. Arrays allow to define type of variables that can hold several data items of the same kind. Classes are not objects, but they are used to instantiate objects. When an array of objects is declared, the memory is allocated in the same way as to multidimensional arrays. Flexible Array Members in a structure in C Flexible Array Member(FAM) is a feature introduced in the C99 standard of the C programming language. struct Person is a datatype and can be used in exactly the same way as we use int , float , or other C++ datatypes. As the C++ code below shows, you can change the content of the strings, but you are out of luck if you try to increase the size of the array and add new strings. But it is faster than g_byte_array_remove_index(). Lecture 14: C/C++ Arrays and Structures Dr. We can use structure and array as:Array of Structure,Array within Structure. For example, given the following basic structure declaration. 6 (1,061 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students' ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. 0 International License. It is an interesting structure to form a useful data structure. Deleting an array through a pointer to the incorrect type results in undefined behavior. A vector is a type of array you find in object oriented languages like C++. Again I combine the C++ implementation with Blueprints. For example, the statement book [i]. We know that the name of the array produces the address of the beginning of the array; and we know that the beginning of the array is also the address of the first element of the array. There are some conventions out there that are fairly widespread and that follow a certain logic. For example, something like: struct data{ int header; int values[10];} that you either used in a call to interop, or with unsafe code to deal with an existing format - something like a network packet or a disk record. Structs and Vectors. Return to the top of this lab Return to the link page for all 2170 labs. According to your description, you want to marshal an array of struct to IntPtr and then convert the IntPtr to type of struct array. Kareena ma’am keeps asking us when we’d get dal-bati churma for her: Unreal Crew from Jodhpur; Kundali Bhagya written update, July 24, 2019: Karan warns everyone from attending Preeta's wedding. Edit: didn't see the part where you said you wanted to sort an array of structs. Pro*C precompiler will convert it into a structure with a 2-byte length field and a n-byte character array. Structure is collection of different data type. There are currently 73 responses to “C Tutorial – structures, unions, typedef” Why not let us know what you think by adding your own comment! Ali on July 14th, 2013: what is difference when we define struct inside main function and outside main function. Vectors are an example of "complex" value types -- when you get the location. That makes topic digestion easier. A Struct object contains a value for each attribute of the SQL structured type that it represents. A structured data type is one in which each data item is a collection of other data items. Array Data Structure Introduction. If you have Statistics Toolbox, there are corresponding functions for dataset arrays. To split a struct pin, right-click on the pin and select Split Struct Pin. A pointer is a variable that contains the memory location of another variable. The effects of aggregate initialization are: Each direct public base, (since C++17) array element, or non-static class member, in order of array subscript/appearance in the class definition, is copy-initialized from the corresponding clause of the initializer list. Kareena ma’am keeps asking us when we’d get dal-bati churma for her: Unreal Crew from Jodhpur; Kundali Bhagya written update, July 24, 2019: Karan warns everyone from attending Preeta's wedding. Discussions of pointers and arrays in C seem to be a holy war. I can do a merge sort with an int array fine, but there seems to be much less flexability dealing with an array of structs which is giving me a lot of problems. USTRUCT NetSerialize. h > #include stdio. On 20-01-17 · By Rune de Groot · With 8 Comments; For a game idea that I was thinking of I needed a saving/loading system that would store all actors that are in a world. He gives other fans a peek into a familiar, yet gorgeously. Unreal Multiplayer Master: Online Game Development In C++ 4. This program will read and print an employee’s details using Structure in C programming Language. C program to store the roll number , name ,and marks of a student using structure and sort the names in order of maximum marks to minimum marks This C program using structure sort student name in order max to min marks i. This articles covers stack implementation in C language. C++ is a directory of C++ examples which illustrate some of the features of the language. 86 seconds; - converting an array to a 16 byte struct one million times takes 3. A C++ DYNAMIC ARRAY C++ does not have a dynamic array inbuilt, although it does have a template in the Standard Template Library called vector which does the same thing. Specifically, structs cannot be used as input/output. As we know, an array is a collection of similar type, therefore an array can be of structure type. (2000), Algoritma Third edition In C part 5, Addison Wesley. Then make an array of these structs. In order to implement this, we need to wrap array within UStruct. There's no magic that's going to zero-fill structures for you. Tutorials - C++ Programming Quiz - Structures Lesson 7: Structures If you haven't already done so, be sure to read through Cprogramming. The possibility of ragged arrays creates the need for more care in crafting array-processing code. Another way of initializing an array of structs is to initialize the array members explicitly. Does anybody have any suggestions for passing arrays of containers (C structs) between TS and c++ dll? I have exhausted my understanding here. If dont understand pointers, please read this tutorial before you go on. This video takes a look at struct variable types, which can contain a variety of different types of data. The problem is the goofy way operator[] is defined in C and for primitive arrays in C++. This is hugely useful and is a foundational technology of the Unreal engine, powering many systems such as detail panels in the editor, serialization, garbage collection, network replication, and Blueprint/C++ communication. This is an important feature. Arrays allow to define type of variables that can hold several data items of the same kind. I've found a workaround for this. For example, an array is a sort of linear data structure. So I'll talk about interesting ways in which they come together. When you declare a USTRUCT in Unreal Engine you can add a NetSerialize method which is part of the Unreal Engine struct trait system. [C#] Passing struct with array to native code Mini Spy I've figured out how C++ laid out the struct on its side and used Layout. - converting a 16 byte structs to an array one million times takes 4. Specifically, you use the Array type to hold elements of a single type, the array’s Element type. In C++ programming language, class describes both the properties (data) and behaviors (functions) of objects. The particular line you are quoting creates a car object and adds it to the array object created in the first line. This book starts by installing a code editor so you can begin to write C++17 code. student1 = student2; //OK. You need to fully initialize new structs just like you would any C++ program.